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Analysis of Governance Standards

Using and Interpreting the APRM Standards

The official APRM documents cite nearly 3,000 pages of standards that have either been promulgated by the African Union or embraced by it. Understanding such a large volume of material can be a challenge for civil society. However the standards contain valuable descriptions of what governments are expected to do. To assist civil society in learning about the standards, this section includes a variety of scholarly papers and interpretations that can help users find the relevant portions of the standards and cite them in country review reports.

This policy briefing is based on a collaborative research effort comparing four international peer-review processes – the AU’s African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM), the UN’s Universal Periodic Review (UPR), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) Anti-Bribery Convention Review (OECDA) and the Open Government Partnership (OGP) – undertaken by the Open Democracy Advice Centre in 2015. This comparison demonstrated not only the benefits for enhancing transparency if a country participates in the OGP, but also how political influences must be addressed when considering participation. (by Steven Gruzd & Gabriella Razzano)   pdf  View file (70.61 kB)

This article provides a valuable perspective on the workings of democracy and how to judge it. (by Steven Friedman)

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This article provides advice on how to judge the effectiveness of fiscal governance, with particular reference to sub-national governments.

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Report on the 2nd Consultative Dialogue Between Civil Society Organisations and the Pan African Parliament (by Trust Africa and Southern Africa Trust)

pdf  View file (190.71 kB)

Analysis of the implications of the Kenyan election crisis 2008 (by Chidi Anselm Odinkalu, Open Society Institute's AfriMap project)

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This document reflects on free and fair elections. (by Inter-Parliamentary Union)

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This guide provides useful insight into how laws and regulations can be structured to keep fraud and corruption out of public procurement

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The Financial Action Task Force is a global organisation that has set 40 recommendations to fight money laundering. This guide helps interpret the recommendations.

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This useful guide provides in-depth guidance on judging elections, adding important detail on international norms and standards (2006). (by Guy S. Goodwin-Gill, Inter-Parliamentary Union)

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In 2002, 55 percent of global conflicts existed in Africa, falling to 24 percent by 2011. By November 2017, there were 15 conflict situations in Africa, all exhibiting the crime of trafficking in women. Modern forms of violent conflict have blurred the lines between traditional battlefields and combatants and civilian spaces and populations. The proliferation of cross border movement in arms and narcotics, terrorism and violent extremism have fuelled national and regional conflicts with an intangible, often faceless yet violent corps of belligerents that target civilians, particularly women and children.

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This eight page document provides a summary of the OECD approach to corporate governance. (by Grant Kirkpatrick)

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This is an abridged version of the much longer Beijing Declaration. The abridged version includes the key resolutions and recommendations.

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Chapter 1: “Resolutions Adopted by the Summit”, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August – 4 September, 2002. This abstract identifies some of the key sections of the WSSD declaration.

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This abstract identifies the key sections of the standard and the obligations it imposes on governments. Adopted July 1990 OAU and entered into force 29 November 1999

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This manual by the IMF, explains the Revised Code on Fiscal Transparency in greater detail and is a valuable tutorial on economic management concepts (by IMF)

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This paper explains the dysfunctional state of African institutions and suggests possible interventions for effective and resilient institutions at the national, regional and continental level. It argues that institutional failure in Africa can be diagnosed at the conceptual and operational level. Conceptually, most African institutions are largely Western imports that do not reflect the socio economic and cultural realities of modern African states. This mismatch not only results in institutional subversion by powerful interests but also accounts for the tension between formal state institutions, on the one hand, and informal and traditional institutions, on the other. (by Fritz Nganje)  pdf  View file (180.84 kB)

This article provides useful insights regarding the right to development that is noted in various international declarations. (by Stephen Marks)

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This document summarises the official OECD code on corporate governance of state owned enterprises

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